1898 Flood Killed 25, Stranded Hundreds

SHAWNEETOWN, Illinois — Children skipped happily along the streets of this southern Illinois town on the afternoon of Sunday, April 3, 1898. Sunday school had let out and the rest of the sunny day was theirs to claim. A large crowd of adults ambled along the walk, crossing Market Street and continuing on their way home. At the north end of Market Street, the levee that protects the town from the Ohio River was badly strained by rising water. But if the townsfolk were worried, it did not show on this spring day.

About 4:45 p.m., a 10-foot section of the levee collapsed and river water began pouring through the breach onto Market Street. The hole in the levee quickly grew to a half-mile wide, exploding into a wall of onrushing flood water that raced into the center of town. The flood rush hit the town like a blast from a double-barrel shotgun. Dozens of homes in the immediate path, many nothing more than shanties, were suddenly swept away. The small buildings were thrust along, some of them smashing against sturdier structures like the courthouse. Within mere moments, a quarter of Shawneetown’s homes were gone, the remains of which tumbled along in the rolling boils of a massive flood.

Floodwaters reached more than 12 feet deep in much of the town in April 1898.
Floodwaters reached more than 12 feet deep in much of Shawneetown and surrounding areas in the April 1898 flood. This photo of the floodwaters at Uniontown, Ky., was taken by B.L. Singley, president of the Keystone View Company, for a stereoscopic card.

The people of Shawneetown were no strangers to floods. They had waged war with the Ohio River for generations. The Ohio always won the battle, but the people rebuilt time and again. As heavy spring rains swelled the Ohio again in March 1898, the older folks in town knew it could mean big trouble. But the relatively new levees were supposed to prevent it. Levees were built in 1884 after back-to-back years of devastating floods that twice wiped out much of the town. Today, the Ohio River again claimed its superiority with the ferocity of a jungle cat.

The Decatur newspaper feared the worst, proclaiming 400 dead. The actual number was 25.

“About 50 small frame houses along the line of the levee to the south were crushed like toys,” witness T.J. Hogan of Omaha, Illinois said. Stunned residents scrambled for higher ground. Women on the streets struggled through the muddy waters, holding their babies aloft as the flood waters reached neck level. “The strongest houses, built especially to resist floods, went down like corn stalks,” wrote photographer Benneville L. Singley. “There was a wild rush for the hills. None had time to secure either treasure or clothing.”

A few miles northwest of Shawneetown, the Daniel J. Dailey Jr. family was preparing for Sunday supper on their farm in North Fork Township. Florence (White) Dailey, 30, prepared the meal while the children helped ready the table. The Dailey home was a busy place, with Delia, Millie, Daniel and Maggie scuttling about. Maggie, just 2 ½, grew up to become our own Margaret Madonna (Dailey) Mulqueen of Cudahy, Wisconsin.

The 1900 U.S. Census shows the Dailey family.
The 1900 U.S. Census shows the Dailey family in Gallatin County, Illinois.

The Dailey and White families had farmed this area of Gallatin County since the early 1860s. Daniel J. Dailey Sr. brought his young family from Ohio about 1860. The 1860 U.S. Census shows the Dailey family consisted of Daniel, 30, Hannah, 26, Mary, 4, and Daniel J., 2. The White family, from which Florence (White) Dailey came, settled in Gallatin County nearly a decade before her birth. The 1860 census showed the White family included father Don, 24, mother Sarah, 24 and children Mary, 5, Wiley, 3, and James, 6 months. Florence was born in November 1869.

We don’t know how long it took word to reach North Fork about the massive breach in the levee. It was most likely the next morning. The news no doubt sent Daniel Dailey towards Shawneetown with other area farmers, while Florence (White) Dailey gathered supplies for what would soon become a massive relief effort. By nightfall on April 3, the river had flooded dozens of square miles in and around Shawneetown with water up to 15 feet deep.

By morning, the town was devastated. Those who could scrambled to the roofs of their homes to escape the rising terror. Dozens raced into the Gallatin County Courthouse, the Riverside Hotel and the Ridgway Bank, seeking shelter on the upper floors of these sturdy structures. A few early rescue boats and canoes drifted into town and began rescuing the stranded. “Hundreds of those who escaped the rush of water were perched on roofs, trees and along the top of the levee,” a newspaper dispatch read. “They were taken from their dangerous positions as rapidly as possible.” Survivors were taken to nearby Junction City, where an emergency camp was established.

Upstream, carpenters, farmers and any able-bodied men began building flat boats that would be used to ferry supplies and people. When word reached dry land in nearby towns, frantic wires were sent to Springfield for help. The situation was pure panic. Newspapers across America carried dramatic headlines; FLOOD AT SHAWNEETOWN. Some predicted hundreds of deaths. One paper even pegged the toll at 1,000.

Meanwhile, rescuers shortly had weather to battle. The cold rains had started again, whipped by 30-mile-per-hour winds that made the sheets of rain cut like glass. Relief efforts were being coordinated at Ridgway, some 12 miles from Shawneetown. The governor sent more than 100 tents and rations for more than 1,000 people, but initially the displaced could rely only on the charity of neighbors and strangers. It would be weeks before the deep flood waters began to recede. Doctors hurried to the area to help prevent sanitary conditions from sickening the townsfolk.

On April 5, the Shawneetown relief committee released a statement and called for donations: “The whole town is submerged. One tract of twelve acres is about 15 feet under water; this was formerly covered with small dwellings and is now absolutely bare. On this tract the greatest loss of life occurred. It is evident that bodies cannot be recovered, nor any absolute knowledge of the number of deaths obtained until the waters abate.”

When the waters finally receded, the full toll of the disaster could be chronicled. There were 25 killed by drowning. Some 143 houses were demolished or rendered untenable. About half of those floated away on the rising river. The relief committee distributed more than $22,000 and helped rebuild many homes. Losses were estimated at in excess of $300,000.

Another image shot by B.L. Singley shows the devastation from the flood.
Another image shot by B.L. Singley shows the devastation from the flood at Shawneetown.

Gallatin County Sheriff Charles R. Galloway suffered particularly stunning personal loss. After learning his daughters Dora, 19, and Mary, 12 were killed in the flood, he then learned of the drowning of his wife, Sylvester. Photographer Singley wrote that the sheriff’s hair “turned suddenly white from grief at the loss of his wife and two daughters.” In some cases, entire families were wiped out, such as Charles Clayton, his wife and their four children.

Until 1883, Shawneetown was completely at the mercy of the river. That year, after floods had again wiped out much of the village, construction was begun on a levee system. The levee was still incomplete in February 1884 when the river overpowered it, pouring floodwaters into the town. “Within 24 hours from that time, all the poorer people of Shawneetown were homeless, their houses drifting about and away in the turbulent flood,” read a report prepared for the Illinois legislature.

There was something in the community’s DNA that willed the folks to rebuild. This was a longstanding feature of life in Shawneetown. Morris Birbeck, writing his 1817 Notes on a Journey in America, remarked: “As the lava of Mount Etna can not dislodge this strange being from the cities which have been repeatedly ravished by its eruptions, the Ohio, with its annual overflowings, is unable to wash away the inhabitants of Shawneetown.”

As true as Birbeck’s observation was, the Ohio struck at Shawneetown with disastrous results again in 1913. That year, more than 1,000 people took up residence in tent cities built on the nearby hills. An emergency hospital was built to care for the injured and sick. In 1932, the levee was raised to 5 feet above the high-water mark from 1913. But nothing would hold back the flood waters in 1937, when what was called a 1,000-year flood swamped the town. After more than a century of floods and destruction, Shawneetown would not rebuild on the lowlands. The state and federal governments helped move the village onto hills 4 miles back from the river.

Margaret Dailey, who was referred to in Census documents as Maggie and Madge, moved away from North Fork and went to school at Northwestern University. She finished her studies in June 1920, and shortly after married a young man named Earl James Mulqueen in Racine, Wisconsin. The Mulqueen family home, which eventually relocated to Cudahy, welcomed 11 children between 1921 and 1944.

— This post has been updated with an additional photo of the flood, and a correction on the location of the first photo to Uniontown, Ky., rather than Shawneetown.

To see other photos of flood devastation at Shawneetown over the years, visit the Ghosts of Old Shawneetown.

©2015 The Hanneman Archive

19 thoughts on “1898 Flood Killed 25, Stranded Hundreds”

    1. The stereoscopic photo card is labeled such, with a narrative about the 1898 Shawneetown flood on the back. The final photo at the bottom of the web site you linked appears to show higher ground in the distance, but I can’t find anything definitive in the photo to confirm its location. I suppose it is possible this locale was somewhere nearby. These are the only photos I’ve ever seen of the 1898 flood.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. The entire town has a levee around it but is flat land on both sides. Several miles outside of town there are a few hills but none of the buildings look familiar. I think your second photo could be old shawneetown. You are correct not many pictures of that time. Mostly 1913 and up. I posted your story on the ghosts of old Shawnee town Facebook page too. Check it out sometime. Thanks

        Liked by 1 person

      2. I will dig out the original scan I did of both sides of the card and see if there are any clues. Thanks for the link. I wondered why my site traffic was through the roof today! Your followers set a one-day traffic record for me.

        Liked by 1 person

      3. Ron, I think I solved the mystery of the photo location. The stereo card has two labels under the photos. One reads: “Shawneetown, Ill., Flood, April 3rd, 1898.” The other reads: “9045—Landing Steamer Passengers, Uniontown, Ky., Flood of 1898.” The story on the back talks only about Shawneetown, so it must be the same flood that impacted both places. I did a Google search with the Uniontown caption and found a version of the card online at the University of Louisville. However, their card does not have the second label on the front referring to Shawneetown.

        Based on this, I changed out the header graphic and adjusted the photo captions in the story. Thanks for this sharp-eyed observation. At the end of the story, I put a link to your Ghosts of Old Shawneetown web site.

        Liked by 1 person

      1. The photos are not of Old Shawneetown. Review the other comments on the thread. They have updated the captions now to say they are photos of Uniontown Kentucky! II posted about the photos all being incorrect they updated the article and made note. Please review all the previous comments I made a year or so ago for details. I do not “get” why they continue to use them after finding the photos are not of the town. I have hundreds of photos available on my Ghosts of Old Shawneetown facebook page. Use them Free!

        Liked by 1 person

      1. You are correct, because after I posted about the photos all being incorrect they updated the article and made note. Please review all the previous comments I made a year or so ago for details. I do not “get” why they continue to use them after finding the photos are not of the town. I have hundreds of photos available on my Ghosts of Old Shawneetown facebook page. Use them Free!

        Liked by 1 person

      1. You are correct, because after I posted about the photos all being incorrect they updated the article and made note. Please review all the previous comments I made a year or so ago for details. I do not “get” why they continue to use them after finding the photos are not of the town. I have hundreds of photos available on my Ghosts of Old Shawneetown facebook page. Use them Free!


  1. Is there a list any where of those who died in this flood? My great-grandfather was born therein 1886 and his youngest brother was born in the mid 1890s. Their mother died between his birth and the 1900 census and I have wondered if she was killed in this flood. I cannot find any record of her death, burial, and I cannot find her in any cemeteries. The family moved to (Old) Shawneetown from Posey County, Indiana during the early 1880s and I can’t find her there either.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Thanks, for the update. I think you are correct about the Uniontown flood. If you wish to save and use any photos I have posted online feel free also. I am originally from old Shawneetown and in the last year studied so much of it’s history. Looking at the town today you would never know it was once a large city.


  3. I found some graves of some who drown during the 1898 Shawneetown flood. I posted them for you on the facebook group. Ghosts of Old Shawneetown. Use them is you like. Will post if I find further 1898 flood info or pic. 😉


  4. To all who have posted comments about the photos: the Uniontown photo was in my family collection and was one of the main things that put me onto this story. It’s part of my family connection to the flood. I have linked to Ron’s Ghosts of Old Shawneetown page and many people have clicked that link. Perhaps I will add a gallery of Ron’s photos at the end of the article. But my Uniontown photo will stay in the article. I’m always hopeful folks will read the captions.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I hope I did not come off as ugly here. I appreciate the article very much as other. My only issue is now kids and others are starting to use your photos and article for projects and other websites thinking they are Shawneetown, Il. I just hate to see misinformation spread. You did mark them clearly as Uniontown so lets just hope people read the captions. Any photo you wish to use that I have posted you are welcomed to. Most are 1913 flood and 1937 but they are of the town. I also have a couple of the tombstones of the victims of the 1898 flood on file. Anything you need just lmk I will forward all I have to help. Thank you for providing a great article on Old Shawneetown.


      1. Not at all, Ron. I just wanted to explain why I left that photo in the story. I will update the piece with some of your photos. Glad to see folks so interested in the topic. My grandmother was a toddler when it happened, but she talked about it many, many decades later.


  5. I grew up on a farm as close to the Ohio river as the floods would allow.

    A half mile from where I grew up there had been a town called Raleigh, KY which was quite prosperous for a brief time around the 1890’s, until the river eroded the banks where the town was located. This was roughly two miles east of Shawneetown. This would be Union County, Kentucky.

    I’ve been living in the northern VA suburbs of Washington DC since 1991. Seven hundred miles from Shawneetown. In 1993 I had a part time job at The Ritz Carlton in Tyson’s Corner, VA. I would drive guests to local restaurants. I often struck up conversations with the guests who were passengers in the hotel’s Lincoln Continental. I was driving the hotels town car one evening and noting my KY accent I was asked by a passenger where was I from. I noted I grew up in KY and Shawneetown, IL was the nearest town adding I’m sure you’ve never heard of the place. The passenger was in shock and told me he grew up in and still lives in Shawneetown. Old Shawneetown in fact.

    I’ve visited Shawneetown many times and I’d never expect that residents would be able to pay to stay in The Ritz Carlton but, I was proven wrong.


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